An infection of the bone is known as osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is caused by an infection that develops in the bone or spreads to the bone from another area, and may result in the formation of an abscess in the bone that blocks blood supply. In children, this condition commonly affects the long bones of the arms or legs and it is more common in the bones of the spine or hips in adults. Most cases of osteomyelitis are caused by germs or the staphylococcus bacteria, that has spread from infected skin, muscles or tendons. Bacteria may be transmitted from another part of the body, through the blood, to the bones.
Most individuals have bones that are resistant to infection, making osteomyelitis more common in patients with weakened bones or immune systems. This may include individuals who have diabetes, poor circulation, or those who have recently been injured or undergone orthopedic surgery.
Symptoms of Bone Infections
Symptoms of bone infections may vary depending on the type of infection and the age of the patient. Patients with bone infections may experience:
- Pain in the affected area
Some patients may experience fatigue, and an overall feeling of general discomfort.
Diagnosis of Bone Infections
A bone infection is diagnosed through a physical examination and a review of symptoms. Blood tests are performed to test the levels of white blood cells to determine the presence of infection. Additional diagnostic tests may include X-rays and MRI or CT scans. A bone biopsy is most effective in diagnosing a bone infection because it can identify the type of germ that has infected the bone. Once the germ is identified, the doctor can create a specific treatment plan.
Treatment of Bone Infections
Hospitalization is often necessary when treating a bone infection. Osteomyelitis is initially treated with antibiotics to thoroughly remove and treat the infection. If the infection does not subside, surgery may be necessary. Surgery may include draining pus or fluid from the infected area, removing diseased bone and tissue or restoring blood flow to the bone. A bone or tissue graft may be needed after these procedures are performed. In very severe cases, a limb may be amputated to stop the infection from spreading further. Underlying conditions such as diabetes, should also be treated to reduce the risk of infection from reoccurring.